LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner, for example, meets weekly with his executive team to discuss how his team members are doing against their goals and metrics. Feedback and coaching sessions provide another opportunity for managers and employees to discuss goals on an ongoing basis. Unfortunately, less than half receive monthly feedback. Several high-profile companies, including Microsoft, IBM, and Accenture, have recently transformed their traditional performance appraisal process to incorporate ongoing discussions on how employees are doing against their goals, which keeps these objectives top of mind throughout the year.
Several recent articles have argued against stretch goals and recommended incremental targets instead. The temptation to play it safe when setting goals is understandable but often misguided. Recall that employees pursuing ambitious goals significantly outperform colleagues with less challenging objectives.
The pioneers of FAST goals, moreover, emphasize the critical role of ambition in setting effective goals.
Ambitious goals minimize the risk that employees will sandbag by committing to overly conservative goals they are sure to achieve. Sandbagging, however, manifests itself in more insidious ways that undermine experimentation and learning. When bonuses are tied to hitting targets, employees may opt for cost-reduction initiatives that are fully under their control, as opposed to growing sales, which depends on the actions of customers, partners, and competitors. Or they might attempt to wring incremental improvements out of existing products or business models rather than pursue a novel technology that offers a higher payoff in the long run.
When the gap between the goals being set and current reality is wide, organizations need to search for creative or innovative ways to achieve their ambitious, overall objectives. When it comes to setting goals, more ambition is not always better — at some point, the objectives enter the realm of delusion. Striking the balance between ambition and achievability is a difficult but essential task for leaders at every level in an organization. Ambition is fiendishly difficult to measure.
You can usually observe only what was achieved not what was possible. We have used multiple measures to estimate organizational ambition, and all point in the same direction — the typical company should focus on setting more ambitious goals. Our survey of more than organizations asked managers what advice they would give a newly hired colleague on setting goals.
In the typical organization, nearly two-thirds of managers would advise a new colleague to play it safe. In the same survey, we asked respondents to choose three factors that most influence promotion decisions from a randomly ordered list of 10 factors. How can leaders inspire people to set more ambitious goals? In Silicon Valley many companies encourage employees to set goals that they are unlikely to achieve in full. In the eyes of Google executives, asking for more would prevent employees from thinking big enough when setting their objectives.
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Google deliberately decouples goal attainment from performance reviews and compensation decisions, which may seem like heresy to managers steeped in traditional performance management philosophy. Indeed, specific, ambitious goals recall the research we mentioned earlier spur performance on their own, without the need for financial incentives. A recent meta-analysis found that in motivating people to complete complex tasks that involved creativity, intrinsic motivation was nearly six times more effective than external incentives in motivating people to complete complex tasks that required creativity.
At AB InBev, bonuses are tightly linked to targets for reducing costs, improving operations, and optimizing pricing. The brewer injects ambition by setting challenging objectives for the company as a whole, hiring highly motivated employees, and rapidly promoting those who deliver on their stretch targets. When it comes to injecting ambition, one size does not fit all.
Goals are a powerful tool to drive strategy execution.
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To harness their potential, leaders must move beyond the conventional wisdom of SMART goals and their entrenched practices. Instead, they need to think in terms of being FAST, by having frequent discussions about goals, setting ambitious targets, translating them into specific metrics and milestones, and making them public for everyone to see. Sull and M. The first author served as an unpaid adviser to BetterWorks from through He did not receive any funding, compensation, consulting fees, equity, or stock options.
We conducted our analysis on a sample of 79 companies that were active BetterWorks customers in the first quarter of We gratefully acknowledge the help of Shezal Padani, J. Sull, C.
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Sull, and J. For an in-depth description of the survey methodology and sample, see D. Sull, H. Kang, N. Thompson, and L. Locke and G. A more recent meta-analysis of goal setting on group rather than individual performance found an effect size of 0. See A. Kleingeld, H.
Pritchard, M. Harrell, D. DiazGranados, and M.
The average team improved their performance by 1. Cappelli and A. Sitkin, C.
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- Space Camp (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine);
- The Ghost (The 13th Floor Book 6).
Miller, and K. Schweitzer, A. Galinsky, and M. Cyert and J. Alexy, E. Bascavusoglu-Moreau, A. Website: OpenPsychometrics. The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire 16PF was first published by Cattle, Tatsuoka, and Eber in , however, since then there have been more additions. This questionnaire is based on Allports proposed personality traits, which Cattle Narrowed down to , and then later down to 16, to design the tool.
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The questionnaire is designed to measure normal behaviors and can bed used for career development, employees selection, marital help, and counseling; but it does have some clinical reference. It measures: warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, liveliness, rule-consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, tension.
Website: Hexaco. The HEXACO model was constructed in the year to assess some of the personality dimensions, and theoretical interpretations, that had been outlined in earlier studies. The model measures six major personality dimensions, namely: Honesty-Humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience.
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The inventory is comprised of questions for the full-length assessment or questions for the half-length assessment. Website: Acer. Developed by Costa and McCrae in the 's and later finalized in , the Revised NEO Personality Inventory NEO-PI-R was designed to measure and test the Big-5 personality traits that are outlined in the five-factor model - namely: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
The inventory also has six subcategories of each of the five traits, for instance, neuroticism is comprised of anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability to stress. Whereas extraversion is comprised of the subcategories of warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking and positive emotion.