Over the centuries engineers, mathematicians and classicists have grappled with the difficulties in the text. But in this manuscript they are unusually frequent, and there are in addition numerous spaces left blank where the copyist seems to have been unable to decipher the exemplar from which he was transcribing. Readers, beginning with Poggio himself, have been faced with rather serious editorial problems--merely to achieve a modest coherence of grammar and sense. Scholarly landmarks in this critical study are the editions of Giovanni Poleni Padua and Franz Buecheler Leipzig While many difficulties have been removed, a large number still remain either apparently beyond hope or admitting of no straightforward solution.
Rodgers , accessed A photographic reproduction of the sole original Latin manuscript and its reprint in Latin; also, a translation into English, and explanatory chapters by Clemens Herschel, Boston, Herschel's translation was revised by Mary B.
Rodgers for the latest and best edition Cambridge: Univ. Press That library dates the edition between and Twentieth century discoveries of ancient paper fragments in North and Northwest China have pushed the date of the invention of paper back about two hundred years earlier. By the second century China was producing paper made from rags. It is one of the earliest complete treatises on any technical or chemical subject, one of the earliest surviving complete papyrus codices on a secular subject, and a key record of the transmission of practical, technical information from the Hellenistic world to Byzantium.
These were not in the form of rolls written in ancient hieroglyphics but rather in the form of separate numbered sheets or codices written in Greek, indicating that the documents and burials were from the Greco-Roman period and probably dated from sometime around the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.
Rather they consist largely of simple, short recipes. In the case of the Leyden papyrus these focus primarily on the preparation of various metal alloys — many of which are intended to imitate the appearance of either gold or silver — for use in making jewelry, in gilding, or in metallic writing, while a few others deal instead with dyes of various sorts.
The contents of the Stockholm papyrus have the same form, but focus more on dyeing and the imitation of various precious stones and gems. Both papyri explicitly acknowledge that the alloys and gems which they describe are imitations and not the real thing. Indeed, so simple and safe are some of the recipes that they have actually been proposed as potential laboratory preparations for use in connection with a modern-day history of chemistry course" The Leyden and Stockholm Papyri. Cincinatti, OH: University of Cincinnati, , 3. In November a digital facsimile was available from the World Digital Library at this link.
Caley, E. Lagercrantz, Otto.
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Edition and German Translation. The anonymous illustrated pamphlet De rebus bellicis, which survived in the late ninth century Codex Spirensis , consists of a series of suggestions for reforming the Roman Empire. The writer describes a number of new mechanical contrivances which in his opinion ought to form part of the equipment of the Roman army.
To facilitate the task of constructing them he included in his treatise coloured drawings of what these contrivances should look like when completed. More or less faithful copies of his drawings have survived in several of the manuscripts" Thompson, A Roman Reformer and Inventor. These copies appear to have included faithful renditions of the numerous colored illustrations. Thompson cited above includes black and white reproductions of the images of imaginative machines in De rebus bellicis. The images, some of which are available on the web, are especially notable because they are copies of late Roman book illustrations, very few of which survived.
Detail of image from De rebus bellicis showing fanciful ox-powered wheel boat. Please click to view entire image.
The earliest Egyptian printed cloth dates from the 4th century. Printed material is only represented by fabrics of the fourth century at the earliest and continues until the Arab period. However, by studying the fabrics themselves, scholars are often able to derive their origins. One group was a pair of medallions and a band of flax and purple wool coming from a tomb in Hwara in the Fayoum Oasis, which were found together with a coin dated to AD. These medallions are adorned in a manner that is virtually identical with that of painted Egyptian shrouds of the Roman period and fabrics discovered in Syria.
Next to the body of Aurelius Colluthus, in his tomb at Antinoe, were discovered sales contracts and his will, all written in Greek between and AD. He was wrapped in a large tapestry with an upper tier showing two busts under arcades supported by two large columns. Despite Eutropius' location in Constantinople, the scholarly consensus is that Vegetius wrote in the Western Empire. Vegetius dedicates his work to the reigning emperor, who is identified as Theodosius, ad Theodosium imperatorem , in the manuscript family that was not edited in ; the identity is disputed: some scholars identify him with Theodosius the Great , while others.
Vegetius explains how one should fortify and organize a camp, how to train troops, how to handle undisciplined troops, how to handle a battle engagement, how to march, formation gauge, and many other useful methods of promoting organization and valour in the legion. Watson observes, Vegetius' Epitoma 'is the only ancient manual of Roman military institutions to have survived intact.
Vegetius also describes in detail the organisation training and equipment of the army of the early Empire. The third contains a series of military maxims, which were rightly enough, considering the similarity in the military conditions of the two ages the foundation of military learning for every European commander from William the Silent to Frederick the Great.
When the French Revolution and the "nation in arms" came into history, we hear little more of Vegetius. Some of the maxims may be mentioned here as illustrating the principles of a war for limited political objectives with which he deals:. Famine is more terrible than the sword. His 'seven normal dispositions for battle,' once in honor among European students of the art of war, are equally useful if applied to more modern conditions.
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His book on siegecraft is important as containing the best description of Late Empire and Medieval siegecraft. From it, among other things, we learn details of the siege engine called the onager , which afterwards played a great part in sieges, until the development of modern cannonry.
The fifth book is an account of the materiel and personnel of the Roman navy.
Its rules of siegecraft were much studied in the Middle Ages. Milner observes that it was 'one of the most popular Latin technical works from Antiquity, rivalling the elder Pliny's Natural History in the number of surviving copies dating from before AD The first printed editions are ascribed to Utrecht , Cologne , Paris , Rome in Veteres de re mil.
A German translation by Ludwig Hohenwang appeared at Ulm in Manuscript 18A. It ends with a paragraph starting: "Here endeth the boke that clerkes clepethe in Latyne Vegecii de re militari. The translator is identified in Manuscript No. That work, first published in print in , was the first printed work on technology and the first book with informational rather than decorative illustrations. Vegetius' Epitoma rei militaris was first published in print in an undated edition, probably issued one or two years later in or by Nicolaus Ketelaer and Gerardus de Leempt in Utrecht.
Their edition had no illustrations. ISTC no. Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris, [Cologne, circa ] from the copy in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.dustcongnesrelo.tk
Okinawa Language-Dialect Dictionary (definitions and meanings)
The first mention of printing in China is an imperial decree of in which Sui emperor Wen-ti ordered the printing of Buddhist images and scriptures. However, the decree provides no details. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio wrote De architectura , the only surviving classical treatise on architecture, between 31 and 27 BCE, while he was employed as military engineer for the Emperor Augustus.
The work, which Vitruvius claimed to be the first comprehensive study on its subject, comprised ten books on the theory and practice of architecture, which in ancient times encompassed not only building construction but also many aspects of mechanical engineering, including construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.
The work contained much useful information on ancient materials and techniques, but it was the theoretical aspects of De architectura that were most influential. Drawing on his own preferences and a selective study of Greek architectural writings, most of which are no longer extant, Vitruvius defined architectural perfection in quantitative terms, and derived from these definitions finite rules governing planning and perfection.
These rules had little effect on the architecture of his day, but were adopted as true doctrine during the Renaissance. Of the eighty or so extant manuscripts of De architectura the great majority descend from a manuscript in the British Library known as Harley H. This was written on the border between east and west Francia about This is supported by the fact that the first two men to show any knowledge of Vitruvius after the Dark Ages are Alcuin , in a letter written to Charlemagne between and , and Einhard , who in addition to his close association with the court, had a practical interest in building.
The whole tradition shows signs of a derivation from an archetype in Anglo-Saxon script, and it has been suggested that Alcuin had imported a text from England. It is difficult not to see such figures as Einhard lurking in the background, men equally at home in the workshop as in the library and scriptorium.
This remarkable collection tells one how to gild metals and distill alcohol, how to make various compounds, from pigments and varnish to incendiary bombs. It has a particular bearing on the making of stained glass and the illumination of manuscripts. These recipes appear in various degrees, and combinations in H and some of its descendants. About the Banu Musa brothers, three Persian scholars active in the library and translation institute called the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, published the Book of Ingenious Devices.
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This described and illustrated a number of automata, including some derived from Hero of Alexandria. According to Charles B.
Fowler, this 'cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century. The Banu Musa brothers also invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. The astrolabe , a type of analog calculator, and an astronomical instrument used for observing planetary movements, was indispensable for navigation.
Brass astrolabes were developed in the medieval Islamic world, and were also used to determine the location of the Kaaba in Mecca , in which direction all Muslims face during prayer. Planispheric, or flat, astrolabes, were more common than the linear or spherical types.
In planispheric astrolabes the celestial sphere was drawn on a flat surface and represented on one plate. The earliest known dated astrolabe is of the planispheric type. Made of cast bronze, it bears the name of its maker. The date is rendered in Arabic letters, whose numerical values total , signifying the year in the Islamic calendar in which the astrolabe was made. Because of the absence of materials, paper, and skilled workers, the owners of private estates began the erection of small paper mills and they endeavoured to induce the former Zushoryo papermakers to resume their work for them in the fabrication of paper.
Up to this time about the only materials used for the making of paper in Japan were the mulberry, gampi Wikstroemia canescens , and hemp Cannabis sativa , but as early as it was recorded that waste paper became a useful material for remaking into sheets of paper. The Chinese, no doubt, had used the method of reclaiming material much earlier, and inasmuch as the Japanese received nearly all of their ideas from China it is reasonable to surmise that there was no exception in this instance.